Problems of geodetic control in coastal areas

R.S. Chugh


The problems discussed in this paper are in relation to Marine Geodesy, viz., Geodesy in Marine environment. The tasks are the determination of positions and establishment of geodetic control on coast, ocean bottom, ocean surface or sub surface; the utilisation of underwater acoustic transponders for ocean bottom control; Satellite navigation; delimitation of marine boundaries; the marine geoid determination; determination of ocean tides, ocean currents and circulation; sea slopes; mean sea level; tsunamis and storm surges; ocean floor spreading; gravity field; magnetic field; preparation of cotidal and corange charts. In this connection explanations are given for the definition of Geodetic Datum of the country, Datum shifts between Indian spheroid and USNNSS spheroid, the accuracies required for surveying and mapping and suitable methods of computations. It is shown that the integration of the products of Satellite Geodesy with those of Classical Geodesy can be a fairly difficult and subtle matter and that at present stage interactive techniques can be used with advantage


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